FAQ

What is S/SFTP

Cable type short discription

ISO / IEC 11801(2002)

.

Kabeltypenkurzzeichen

Examples

 

Cable type S/FTP

• Twisted Pair shielded with AL foil

• Cu shield by braid drain

• For applications til > 100 MHz

• Very good electromagnetic compatibility

 

Cable typeSF/UTP

• shielding with Al-foil and Cu by braid drain

• Twisted Pair unshielded

• For applications til 500 MHz

• Good electromagnetic compatibility

 

Cable type F/UTP

• Al-foil shield Gesamtschirm

• Pair unshielded

• For applications til 100 MHz

• Sufficient electromagnetic compatibility

 

Cable type U/UTP

• no shield

• Twisted Pair not shielded

• closed, metallic transfer system recommended

• Insufficient electromagnetic compatibility

What is PATA?

Parallel ATA (PATA)

Parallel ATA (PATA), originally AT Attachment, is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disks, solid-state drives, floppy drives, and optical disc drives in computers. The standard is maintained by X3/INCITS committee.[1] It uses the underlying AT Attachment (ATA) and AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) standards.

The Parallel ATA standard is the result of a long history of incremental technical development, which began with the original AT Attachment interface, developed for use in early PC AT equipment. The ATA interface itself evolved in several stages from Western Digital's original Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface. As a result, many near-synonyms for ATA/ATAPI and its previous incarnations are still in common informal use. After the introduction of Serial ATA in 2003, the original ATA was renamed Parallel ATA, PATA for short.

Parallel ATA cables have a maximum allowable length of only 18 in (457 mm).[2][3] Because of this limit, the technology normally appears as an internal computer storage interface. For many years ATA provided the most common and the least expensive interface for this application. It has largely been replaced by Serial ATA (SATA) in newer systems.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What is DecaBDE?

DecaBDE - Decabromdiphenylether

Decabromodiphenyl ether (also known as decaBDE, deca-BDE, DBDE, deca, decabromodiphenyl oxide, DBDPO, or bis(pentabromophenyl) ether) is a brominated flame retardant which belongs to the group of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

Composition, uses, and production:

Commercial decaBDE is a technical mixture of different PBDE congeners, with PBDE congener number 209 (decabromodiphenyl ether) and nonabromodiphenyl ether being the most common.[4] The term decaBDE alone refers to only decabromodiphenyl ether, the single "fully brominated" PBDE.[5]

DecaBDE is a flame retardant. The chemical "is always used in conjunction with antimony trioxide" in polymers, mainly in "high impact polystyrene (HIPS) which is used in the television industry for cabinet backs."[4] DecaBDE is also used for "polypropylene drapery and upholstery fabric" by means of backcoating and "may also be used in some synthetic carpets."[4]

The annual demand worldwide was estimated as 56,100 tonnes in 2001, of which the Americas accounted for 24,500 tonnes, Asia 23,000 tonnes, and Europe 7,600 tonnes.[6] The industrial consumption in Europe was stable at approximately 8,000 tonnes annually between the beginning of the 1990s and 2004.[7] As of 2007, Albemarle in the U.S., Chemtura in the U.S., ICL-IP in Israel, and Tosoh Corporation in Japan are the main manufacturers of decaBDE.[8][9]

Environmental chemistry:

As stated in a 2006 review, "Deca-BDE has long been characterized as an environmentally stable and inert product that was not capable of degradation in the environment, not toxic, and therefore of no concern."[10] However, "some scientists had not particularly believed that Deca-BDE was so benign, particularly as evidence to this effect came largely from the industry itself."[10] One problem in studying the chemical was that "the detection of Deca-BDE in environmental samples is difficult and problematic"; only in the late 1990s did "analytical advances... allow[] detection at much lower concentrations."[10]

DecaBDE is released by different processes into the environment, such as emissions from manufacture of decaBDE-containing products and from the products themselves.[5] Elevated concentrations can be found in air, water, soil, food, sediment, sludge, and dust.[11] A 2006 study concluded "in general, environmental concentrations of BDE-209 [i.e., decaBDE] appear to be increasing."[11]

Voluntary and governmental actions EUROPE:

In Germany, plastics manufacturers and the textile additives industry "declared in 1986 a voluntary phase-out of the use of PBDEs, including Deca-BDE."[37] Although decaBDE was to be phased out of electrical and electronic equipment in the EU by 2006 under the EU's Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS), decaBDE use has been exempted from RoHS beginning in 2005 and continuing for five years.[38][39] A case in the European Court of Justice against the RoHS exemption has been decided against Deca-BDE and its use must be phased out by July 1, 2008.[8] Sweden, an EU member, banned decaBDE as of 2007.[26][40] The European Brominated Flame Retardant Industry Panel (EBFRIP), which represents the chemical industry, stated that Sweden's ban on decaBDE "is a serious breach of EU law. [2]. The European Commission then started an infringement procedure against Sweden which lead to the Swedish Government repealing this restriction on 1 July 2008 [3]. The environment agency of Norway, which is a member of the European Free Trade Association but is not a member of the EU, recommended that decaBDE be banned from electronic products in 2008.[41]

DecaBDE has been the subject of a ten year evaluation under the EU Risk Assessment procedure which has reviewed over 1100 studies. The Risk Assessment was published on the EU Official Journal in May 2008.[42] Deca was registered under the EU’s REACH Regulation at the end of August 2010.

The UK’s Advisory Committee on Hazardous Substances (ACHS) presented their conclusions following a review of the emerging studies on Deca-BDE on 14 September 2010. The ACHS’s conclusions will not lead to any immediate change in the European regulatory status , including classification and labeling, of Deca- BDE. The UK’s Department of Environment (DEFRA) and Environment Agency will now consider the ACHS’s conclusions in consultation with other bodies on the UK Competent Authority for REACH.

Voluntary and governmental actions UNITED STATES:

As of mid-2007 two states had instituted measures to phase out decaBDE. In April 2007 the state of Washington passed a law banning the manufacture, sale, and use of decaBDE in mattresses as of 2008; the ban "could be extended to TVs, computers and upholstered residential furniture in 2011 provided an alternative flame retardant is approved."[9][43][44] In June 2007 the state of Maine passed a law "ban[ning] the use of deca-BDE in mattresses and furniture on January 1, 2008 and phas[ing] out its use in televisions and other plastic-cased electronics by January 1, 2010."[45][46] As of 2007, other states considering restrictions on decaBDE include California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,[47] Montana, New York, and Oregon.[40][48]

On December 17, 2009, as the result of negotiations with EPA, the two U.S. producers of decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), Albemarle Corporation and Chemtura Corporation, and the largest U.S. importer, ICL Industrial Products, Inc., announced commitments to phase out voluntarily decaBDE in the United States.[4][5], [6], [7]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What is ESDCI?

ESDCI

Ziel:

Simplification connection technology of 18 BIT digital displays (TFT)

Realisation:

Using the standardised connector all required signals for 18 BIT digital displays are available. The extremely small connector can be designed from one of “developer” to the control assembly. Selected connector is 1.27x1.27 mm from pin to pin.

Advantage:

The connection cable’s looms are defined. Only cable length is customized. Afterwards the cable can be clearly faster produced because all the plans and test equipment are exist.

What is LVDS?

Low Voltage Differential Signaling

Low-voltage differential signaling, or LVDS, is an electrical digital signaling standard that can run at very high speeds over inexpensive twisted-pair copper cables. It specifies the electrical-level details for interoperability between inputs and outputs on integrated circuit chips. Since it is the physical layer specification only, many data communication standards and applications use it but then add a data link layer as defined in the OSI model on top of it.

LVDS was introduced in 1994, and has become popular in products such as LCD-TVs, automotive infotainment systems, industrial cameras and machine vision, notebook and tablet computers, and communications systems. The typical applications are high-speed video, graphics, video camera data transfers, and general purpose computer buses. Early-on the notebook and LCD display vendors commonly used the term LVDS instead of FPD-Link when referring to their application, and the term LVDS has mistakenly become synonymous with Flat Panel Display Link (FPD-Link) in the video-display engineering vocabulary.

Differential vs. single-ended signaling:

LVDS is a differential signaling system, meaning that it transmits information as the difference between the voltages on a pair of wires; the two wire voltages are compared at the receiver. In a typical implementation, the transmitter injects a constant current of 3.5 mA into the wires, with the polarity determining the digital logic level. The current passes through a termination resistor of about 100 to 120 ohms (matched to the cable’s characteristic impedance to reduce reflections) at the receiving end, and then returns in the opposite direction via the other wire. From Ohm's law, the voltage difference across the resistor is therefore about 350 mV. The receiver senses the polarity of this voltage to determine the logic level.

As long as there is tight electric- and magnetic-field coupling between the two wires, LVDS reduces the generation of electromagnetic noise. This noise reduction is due to the equal and opposite current flow in the two wires creating equal and opposite electromagnetic fields that tend to cancel each other. In addition, the tightly coupled transmission wires will reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic noise interference because the noise will equally affect each wire and appear as a common-mode noise. The LVDS receiver is unaffected by common mode noise because it senses the differential voltage, which is not affected by common mode voltage changes.

The low common-mode voltage (the average of the voltages on the two wires) of about 1.2V allows using LVDS with a wide range of integrated circuits with power supply voltages down to 2.5V or lower. In addition, there are variations of LVDS that use a lower common mode voltage. One example is sub-LVDS (introduced by Nokia in 2004) that uses 0.9V typical common mode voltage. Another is Scalable Low Voltage Signaling for 400 mV (SLVS-400) specified in JEDEC JESD8-13 October 2001 where the power supply can be as low as 800 mV and common mode voltage is about 400 mV.

The low differential voltage, about 350 mV, causes LVDS to consume very little power compared to other signaling technologies. At 2.5V supply voltage the power to drive 3.5 mA becomes 8.75 mW, compared to the 90 mW dissipated by the load resistor for an RS-422 signal.

LVDS is not the only differential signaling system in use, but is currently the only scheme that combines low power dissipation with high speed.

Applications:

LVDS became popular in the mid 1990s. Before that, computer monitor resolutions were not large enough to need such fast data rates for graphics and video. However, in 1992 Apple Computer needed a method to transfer multiple streams of digital video without overloading the existing NuBus on the backplane. Apple and National Semiconductor (NSC) created QuickRing, which was the first integrated circuit using LVDS. QuickRing was a high speed auxiliary bus for video data to bypass the NuBus in Macintosh computers. The multimedia and supercomputer applications continued to expand because both needed to move large amounts of data over links several meters long (from a disk drive to a workstation for instance).

The first commercially successful application for LVDS was in notebook computers transmitting video data from graphics processing units to the flat panel displays using the Flat Panel Display Link by National Semiconductor. The first FPD-Link chipset reduced a 21-bit wide video interface plus the clock down to only 4 differential pairs (8 wires), which enabled it to easily fit through the hinge between the display and the notebook and take advantage of LVDS’s low-noise characteristics and fast data rate. FPD-Link became the de facto open standard for this notebook application in the late 1990’s and is still the dominant display interface today in notebook and tablet computers. This is the reason IC vendors such as Texas Instruments, Maxim, Fairchild, and Thine produce their versions of the FPD-Link chipset. FPD Link I serializer example.png

The applications for LVDS expanded to flat panel displays for consumer TVs as screen resolutions and color depths increased. To serve this application, FPD-Link chipsets continued to increase the data-rate and the number of parallel LVDS channels to meet the internal TV requirement for transferring video data from the main video processor to the display-panel’s timing controller. FPD-Link (commonly called LVDS) became the de facto standard for this internal TV interconnect and remains the dominant interface for this application in 2012.

The next target application was transferring video streams through an external cable connection between a desktop computer and display, or a DVD player and a TV. NSC introduced higher performance follow-ons to FPD-Link called the LVDS Display Interface (LDI) and OpenLDI standards. These standards allow a maximum pixel clock of 112 MHz, which suffices for a display resolution of 1400 × 1050 (SXGA+) at 60 Hz refresh. A dual link can boost the maximum display resolution to 2048 × 1536 (QXGA) at 60 Hz. FPD-Link works with cable lengths up to about 5m, and LDI extends this to about 10m. However, Digital Visual Interface (DVI) using TMDS signals won the standards competition and became the standard for externally connecting desktop computers to monitors, and HDMI eventually became the standard for connecting digital video sources such as DVD players to flat panel displays in consumer applications.

Another successful LVDS application is Camera Link, which is a serial communication protocol designed for computer vision applications and based on the NSC chipset called Channel Link that uses LVDS. Camera Link standardizes video interfaces for scientific and industrial products including cameras, cables, and frame grabbers. The Automated Imaging Association (AIA) maintains and administers the standard because it is the industry’s global machine vision trade group.

More examples of LVDS used in computer buses are HyperTransport and FireWire, both of which trace their development back to the post-Futurebus work, which also led to SCI. In addition, LVDS is the physical layer signaling in SCSI standards (Ultra-2 SCSI and later) to allow higher data rates and longer cable lengths. Serial ATA, PCI Express, RapidIO, and SpaceWire use LVDS to allow high speed data transfer.

Intel and AMD published a press release in December 2010 stating they would no longer support the LVDS LCD-panel interface in their product lines by 2013. They are promoting Embedded DisplayPort and Internal DisplayPort as their preferred solution.[2] However, the LVDS LCD-panel interface has proven to be the lowest cost method for moving streaming video from a video processing unit to a LCD-panel timing controller within a TV or notebook, and in February 2012 LCD TV and notebook manufacturers continue to introduce new products using the LVDS interface.

Comparing serial and parallel data transmission:

LVDS works in both parallel and serial data transmission. In parallel transmissions multiple data differential pairs carry several signals at once including a clock signal to synchronize the data. In serial communications, multiple single-ended signals are serialized into a single differential pair with a data rate equal to that of all the combined single-ended channels. For example, a 7-bit wide parallel bus serialized into a single pair that will operate at 7 times the data rate of one single-ended channel. The devices for converting between serial and parallel data are the serializer and deserializer, abbreviated to SerDes when the two devices are contained in one integrated circuit.

As an example, FPD-Link actually uses LVDS in a combination of serialized and parallel communications. The original FPD-Link designed for 18-bit RGB video has 3 parallel data pairs and a clock pair, so this is a parallel communication scheme. However, each of the 3 pairs transfers 7 serialized bits during each clock cycle. So the FPD-Link parallel pairs are carrying serialized data, but use a parallel clock to recover and synchronize the data.

Serial data communications can also embed the clock within the serial data stream. This eliminates the need for a parallel clock to synchronize the data. There are multiple methods for embedding a clock into a data stream. One method is inserting 2 extra bits into the data stream as a start-bit and stop-bit to guarantee bit transitions at regular intervals to mimic a clock signal. Another method is 8b/10b encoding.

LVDS transmission with 8b/10b encoding:

LVDS does not specify a bit encoding scheme because it is a physical layer standard only. LVDS accommodates any user-specified encoding scheme for sending and receiving data across an LVDS link, including 8b/10b encoded data. An 8b/10b encoding scheme embeds the clock signal information and has the added benefit of DC balance. DC balance is necessary for AC-coupled transmission paths (such as capacitive or transformer-coupled paths). There are also DC-balance encoding methods for the start bit/stop bit embedded clock, which usually include a data scrambling technique. The key point is LVDS is the physical layer signaling to transport bits across wires. It is compatible with most all data encoding and clock embedding techniques.

LVDS for very high data-throughput applications:

When a single differential pair of serial data is not fast enough there are techniques for grouping serial data channels in parallel and adding a parallel clock channel for synchronization. This is the technique used by FPD-Link. Other examples of parallel LVDS using multiple LVDS pairs and a parallel clock to synchronize are Channel Link and HyperTransport.

There is also the technique to increase the data throughput by grouping multiple LVDS-with-embedded-clock data channels together. However, this is not parallel LVDS because there is no parallel clock and each channel has its own clock information. An example of this technique is PCI Express where 2, 4, or 8 8b/10b encoded serial channels carry application data from source to destination. In this case the destination must employ a data synchronization method to align the multiple serial data channels.

Multipoint LVDS:

The original LVDS standard only envisioned driving a digital signal from one transmitter to one receiver in a point-to-point topology. However, engineers using the first LVDS products soon wanted to drive multiple receivers with a single transmitter in a multipoint topology. As a result NSC invented Bus LVDS (BLVDS) as the first variation of LVDS designed to drive multiple LVDS receivers. It uses termination resistors at each end of the differential transmission line to maintain the signal integrity. Double termination is necessary because it is possible to have one or more transmitters in the center of the bus driving signals toward receivers in both directions. The difference from standard LVDS transmitters was increasing the current output in order to drive the multiple termination resistors. In addition, the transmitters need to tolerate the possibility of other transmitters simultaneously driving the same bus.

Bus LVDS and LVDM (by TI) are de facto multipoint LVDS standards. Multipoint LVDS (MLVDS) is the TIA standard (TIA-899). The AdvancedTCA standard specified MLVDS for clock distribution across the backplane to each of the computing module boards in the system.

MLVDS has two types of receivers. Type-1 is compatible with LVDS and uses a +/- 50 mV threshold. Type-2 receivers allow Wired-Or signaling with M-LVDS devices. For MLVDS:

SCI-LVDS:

The present form of LVDS was preceded by an earlier standard initiated in Scalable Coherent Interconnect (SCI). SCI-LVDS was a subset of the SCI family of standards and specified in the IEEE 1596.3 1995 standard. The SCI committee designed LVDS for interconnecting multiprocessing systems with a high-speed and low power interface to replace positive emitter-coupled logic (PECL).

Standards:

The ANSI/TIA/EIA-644-A (published in 2001) standard defines LVDS. This standard originally recommended a maximum data rate of 655 Mbit/s over twisted-pair copper wire, but data rates from 1- to 3-Gbit/s are common today on high quality transmission medium.[3].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What is ZIF - Zero Insertion Force?

ZIF - Zero insertion force

Zero insertion force (ZIF)Zero insertion force is a concept used in the design of IC sockets and electrical connectors invented to avoid problems caused by applying force upon insertion and extraction.

A normal integrated circuit (IC) socket requires the IC to be pushed into sprung contacts which then grip by friction. For an IC with hundreds of pins, the total insertion force can be very large (tens of newtons), leading to a danger of damage to the device or the circuit board. Also even with relatively small pin counts each extraction is fairly awkward and carries a significant risk of bending pins (particularly if the person performing the extraction hasn't had much practice or the board is crowded). Low insertion force (LIF) sockets reduce the issues of insertion and extraction but the lower the insertion force of a conventional socket, the less reliable the connection is likely to be.

With a ZIF socket, before the IC is inserted, a lever or slider on the side of the socket is moved, pushing all the sprung contacts apart so that the IC can be inserted with very little force (generally the weight of the IC itself is sufficient with no external downward force required). The lever is then moved back, allowing the contacts to close and grip the pins of the IC. ZIF sockets are much more expensive than standard IC sockets and also tend to take up a larger board area due to the space taken up by the mechanism. Therefore they are only used when there is a good reason to do so.

Large ZIF sockets are only commonly found mounted on PC motherboards (from about the mid 1990s forward). These CPU sockets are designed to support a particular range of CPUs, allowing computer retailers and consumers to assemble motherboard/CPU combinations based on individual budget and requirements. The rest of the electronics industry has largely abandoned sockets and moved to surface mount components soldered directly to the board.

Smaller ZIF sockets are commonly used in chip-testing and programming equipment, e.g. programming and testing on EEPROMs, Microcontrollers, etc.

Universal test sockets

Standard DIP packages come in two widths (measured between pin centers), 0.3 in (7.62 mm) (skinny dip) for smaller devices (8-28 pin) and 0.6 in (15.24 mm) for larger devices (24-40 pin). To allow design of programmers and similar devices that supported a range of devices some in skinny dip and some in full width dip universal test sockets are produced. These have wide slots into which the pins drop allowing both 0.3 in and 0.6 in devices to be inserted.

Ball grid array sockets

ZIF sockets can be used for ball grid array chips, particularly during development. These sockets tend to be unreliable, failing to grab all the balls. Another type of BGA socket, also free of insertion force but not a "ZIF socket" in the traditional sense, does a better job by using spring pins to push up underneath the balls.

ZIF wire-to-board connectors

ZIF wire-to-board connectors are used for attaching wires to printed circuit boards inside electronic equipment. The wires, often formed into a ribbon cable, are pre-stripped and the bare ends placed inside the connector. The two sliding parts of the connector are then pushed together, causing it to grip the wires. The most important advantage of this system is that it does not require a mating half to be fitted to the wire ends, therefore saving space and cost inside miniaturised equipment. See flexible flat cable.

Hard disk drives

ZIF tape connections are used for connecting IDE and SATA disk drives (mostly 1.8" factor). ZIF-style connectors for IDE hard drives were used primarily in the design of Ultra-Portable notebooks, and has since been phased out, as SATA has a relatively small-form-factor connector by default. Also, nearly all hard drives use ZIF tape to connect their circuit board to their platter motor. Three types of ZIF connectors are known to exist on 1.8" drives. ZIF-24, ZIF-40, and ZIF-50 with 24, 40, and 50 pins respectively. ZIF tape connections are also heavily used in the design of the Apple Inc. iPod range of portable media players.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What is LIF - Low Insertion Force?

LIF - Low insertion force

are integrated circuit sockets that are designed so the force required to insert or remove a package is low.

Initially, the LIF connectors were designed as a cheaper alternative compared to ZIF connectors, to facilitate programming and testing of equipment. Compared with standard IC sockets, they have a lower friction force between the contacts of the device and the socket, making insertion and removal of the device easier, while at the same time eliminating the need for the complex mechanism that is used in ZIF sockets.

The disadvantages of LIF connectors are that the grip force between the contacts is lower, and the contacts can oxidize faster and decrease the lifespan of the connector. With the advent of frequent changes in PC processors, a need arose for these systems. Intel introduced the LIF socket system, in which the processor is inserted into the socket, rather than fixed by a lever. This type of socket was used for some types of 386s and early 486s. This type of socket has been replaced by the ZIF socket, although LIF sockets are now used in modern 1.8” hard disks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

What is a "Jumper"?

Jumper (Computing)

In electronics and particularly computing, a jumper is a short length of conductor used to close a break in or bypass part of an electrical circuit. Jumpers are typically used to set up or adjust printed circuit boards, such as the motherboards of computers.

Design and use:

Jumper pins (points to be connected by the jumper) are arranged in groups called jumper blocks, each group having at least one pair of contact points. An appropriately sized conductive sleeve called a jumper, or more technically, a jumper shunt, is slipped over the pins to complete the circuit.

Jumpers must be electrically conductive; they are usually encased in a non-conductive block of plastic for convenience. This also avoids the risk that an unshielded jumper will accidentally short out something critical (particularly if it is dropped on a live circuit).

When a jumper is placed over two or more jumper pins, an electrical connection is made between them, and the equipment is thus instructed to activate certain settings accordingly. For example, with older PC systems, CPU speed and voltage settings were often made by setting jumpers. Informally, technicians often call setting jumpers “strapping”. To adjust the SCSI ID jumpers on a hard drive, for example, is to “strap it up”.

Jumper blocks and jumpers are also often used on motherboards to clear the CMOS information, resetting the BIOS configuration settings. This allows the computer to boot if a recent BIOS setting made it unable to boot, or if the CMOS boot password was forgotten.

History:

Early generations of any given computer hardware technology usually have many jumper blocks, often laid out in a way that is poorly documented and difficult to set correctly. Often, designers find ways to streamline and simplify the jumper layout. For example, a typical early model Intel 386 motherboard might have 30 or 40 jumper pairs, while the last production models typically had just a handful, or sometimes only one. Typically, each jumper block is assigned and labeled with a number, which is documented in an instructional list printed on the motherboard or in the manual.

The recent trend has been to try to eliminate jumpers entirely from hardware devices by the use of auto-configuration or software-controlled configuration. Configurations may be stored in NVRAM, loaded by a host processor, or negotiated at system initialization time. In some cases, hot swappable devices may be able to renegotiate their configuration while the system is running. Jumperless designs have the advantage that they are usually fast and easy to set up, often require little technical knowledge, and can be adjusted without having physical access to the circuit. With newer PCs, the most common use of jumpers is in setting the operating mode for ATA drives (master, slave, or cable select).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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